We’ve been hearing about it for years. Finally, the result of the joint project between the FASB and the IASB to update and consolidate accounting standards for revenue recognition into one global standard is just about here. They’re expected to issue it by the end of this month.
This is when the fun begins. While there is time before companies have to issue financial statements under the new standard (which we’ll see in the first interim period of 2017 for public companies with fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016), they will need to disclose the expected impact of the new standard right away. And they will need to be tracking transactions under the new principles beginning in 2015.
The biggest change is the shift from industry-specific guidance to the application of general principles across all industries. Companies will need to re-think how revenue will be recognized for their transactions, and in some cases they will be able to record revenue earlier than they do now. Here are my thoughts on what our clients should be considering in the months ahead.
If you work at a life sciences company
The revenue standard applies to all contracts with customers, including some collaboration arrangements for life sciences companies if they are in effect transactions with a customer. Collaborations might fall outside the scope of the new revenue guidance if the collaborator or partner is not in substance a customer, such as when a biotechnology company and pharmaceutical company have an agreement to share equally in the development of a specific drug candidate as well as the risk that comes with it.
Another change that will arise with the new standard is that variable consideration (such as milestone payments) may be included in the transaction price allocated to deliverables as long as the company has relevant experience with similar performance obligations and, based on that experience, they do not expect a significant reversal in future periods. Changes to these estimates will have to be allocated to performance obligations based on that initial allocation, unless a payment relates to a specific element and is consistent with the amount expected to be entitled for performance of that obligation.
When life sciences companies license their drugs to commercialization partners, they can estimate and recognize sales-based royalties when the partners’ subsequent sales occur and will not have to wait, as they do now, until each partner has reported such sales. These estimates can include only the amount that has a low probable risk of significant reversal.
Another change that will result in earlier recognition of revenue for life sciences companies is the recording of sales of new products when they ship, minus the estimates for returns. Currently, companies have to delay recognition on a sell-through basis if a pattern of return has not been established.
If you enter into license agreements
The new standard’s emphasis on when control transfers to the customer may change the timing of revenue recognition on licenses. A license is the right to use an entity’s intellectual property, such as software and technology, patents, trademarks, copyrights, music and movie rights and franchises. In some cases, a license is a promise to provide a right, which transfers at a point in time. In other cases, it is a promise to provide access to a right that transfers to the customer over time, such as if a licensor has continuing obligations under the arrangement that do not otherwise qualify as separate performance obligations, or if the licensor must actively make the IP available on a continuous basis during the license period, or if the licensee benefits from changes over time.
If you have software arrangements
For software arrangements, VSOE (vendor-specific objective evidence) guidance is no longer required, resulting in earlier recognition of revenue for licenses that lacked it for undelivered elements, including future upgrades, additional product rights or other vendor obligations. Companies still need to allocate revenue to each of the deliverables in the arrangement based upon best estimated selling prices (BESP). It simply allows for alternate methods of determining BESP beyond VSOE.
If you sell software as a service
You will need to assess software license and hosting services to determine if they represent distinct performance obligations. It is unclear what criteria will apply to determine whether a typical SaaS arrangement will qualify for service accounting treatment (over time) or if the software element should be recognized separately (at a point in time).
In addition, provisions entitling the customer to a refund if undelivered elements are not successfully provided — an issue that currently delays recognition — will be a part of the estimate of variable consideration, resulting in earlier revenue recognition in some arrangements.
If you’re a contract manufacturer
In contract manufacturing situations, the timing of revenue recognition will no longer revolve around when units are delivered but instead when a service is performed and when the control of goods are transferred to the customer over time. This change may require contract manufacturers to modify their systems and processes to recognize revenue in the new way.
If you work in the technology sector
Distributors and resellers tend to require price protection or right of return from manufacturers of technology products to protect themselves from obsolescence and price reductions. Manufacturers currently delay recognition of revenue from these transactions because of the possibility they’d have to give money back or accept product returns. Under the new standards, fees that are currently not considered fixed and determinable can be recognized to the extent the company can estimate the amount that has a low probable risk of significant reversal. This will result in earlier recognition of revenue for manufacturers.
When companies license their technology for use in tangible goods or services, they can recognize the royalties when sales or usage occurs to the extent they can estimate the amount that won’t reverse (subject to the constraint on variable consideration). Today, recognition is typically delayed until such sales are reported by the licensee.
What everyone should do in the meantime
These are just a few examples of impacts in certain industries. When the new standard is released, we encourage you to evaluate its impact on your company and business model. Don’t underestimate the subtleties the new principles guidance will change in revenue recognition. Without bright-line rules, there will be room for judgment but also room for differences in interpretation and implementation, particularly between you and your auditor. Let the fun begin!
Diana Gilbert has been a member of the RoseRyan dream team since 2008 with almost 30 years of professional experience. She excels at technical accounting, revenue recognition, SOX/internal controls, business systems and process improvements.